Stroke is a cardiovascular disease that affects the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain. A stroke occurs when a blood vessel responsible for supplying the brain with oxygen and nutrients bursts or becomes excessively clogged by a blood clot or some other particle.
The American Heart Association has identified several factors that increase the risk of stroke. The more risk factors a person has, the greater the chance that he or she will have a stroke. The best way to prevent a stroke is to reduce the controllable risk factors, which include: • High blood pressure • Tobacco use • High cholesterol levels • Obesity • Physical inactivity There are also a number of uncontrollable risk factors for stroke including age, gender, race, family history of heart disease, previous stroke or diabetes.
The most common warning signs of stroke include the following:
  • Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, often on one side of the body.
  • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding.
  • Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes.
  • Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination.
  • Sudden severe headache with no known cause.

Not all of these warning signs occur in every stroke. If some signs begin to occur, don’t wait. Get help immediately. Stroke is a medical emergency.

Soft (tub) or liquid margarines are generally a better choice than butter if you choose a margarine which does not contain trans fats. Butter is high in saturated fats and contains cholesterol, both of which increase your blood cholesterol levels. Most margarines are made with vegetable fats and contain no cholesterol, and many margarines (especially softer tub margarines) no longer contain trans fats. However, traditional hard (stick) margarines contain substantial amounts of trans fats. Generally, the softer the margarine is, the less saturated and trans fats it contains. However, always check the food label to be informed of the amount of saturated andtrans fat content in a serving.
Sample DeThe total amount of fats you eat each day should be about 25–35 percent of your total daily calories. Within those limits, keep the saturated fats you eat to less than 7 percent of total daily calories and yourtrans fat consumption to less than 1 percent. In order to get enough fish – derived omega – 3 fatty acids, eat at least two fish meals a week. Translating these percentages into numbers, that means if you eat 2,000 total calories a day, your daily limits should be: • approximately 56–78 grams (500–700 of those calories) from fats; • less than 16 grams (less than 140 of those calories) from saturated fats; and • less than 2 grams (less than 20 of those calories) from trans fats. Most of the fats you eat should be the “better” fats – monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats. However, be sure not to eat more than recommended amounts of total calories from any food sources (fats, carbohydrates, or protein), which could lead to weight gain. scription

According to the American Heart Association, the signs of a heart attack include:

  • Chest pain–This is can be sudden and intense, or it can begin slowly with mild pain and discomfort. The pain usually starts in the center of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes. It also may be intermittent pain that goes away and comes back. Some describe this feeling as pressure or squeezing.
  • Pain or discomfort in the upper body–This usually involves pain in the arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomach.
  • Shortness of breath–This usually occurs at the same time the patient feels chest pain, but sometimes it can occur before.
  • Cold sweat
  • Nausea
  • Lightheadedness

The American Heart Association recommends that you call for emergency help immediately (no more than five minutes after onset of symptoms) if you or someone you know is experiencing chest pain, especially with one or more other symptoms.

An ECG shows the electrical activity of your heart, including rate, rhythm, and whether or not your heart is beating correctly (upper chambers then lower chambers). This can help your doctor to determine if you have an abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia). Your doctor would order an ECG if you are having certain symptoms, including shortness of breath, palpitations, dizziness, lightheadedness, or chest pain. Commonly, a baseline study for future comparison also is performed at a first visit with a new doctor and annually if there are any risk factors for heart problems. An ECG is also considered a safe, routine test and may be prescribed as part of a thorough physical examination or as a routine test before surgery.
Your doctor would order a cardiac ECHO if you have certain symptoms, including chest pain, shortness of breath, and persistent coughing. The ECHO will help him or her determine the cause of your symptoms and guide in finding the best treatment. A cardiac ECHO gives your doctor a high – quality image of how your heart is working, including blood flow, valve function, and heart muscle activity. It can be very useful in helping to diagnose coronary artery disease or heart valve disease.
A Holter monitor shows the electrical activity of your heart, including rate, rhythm, and whether or not your heart is beating correctly (upper chambers then lower chambers). It records these things over an extended period of time, and, when combined with your journal of symptoms, can be very helpful in determining if you have an abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia).
Vascular closure devices seal the puncture site in an artery (the arteriotomy) through mechanical means rather than relying on the body’s natural clotting response. There are numerous technologies for closing the arteriotomy. The current preferred technology sandwiches the arterial wall between a piece of collagen and a small anchor, elements that then dissolve inside the body.
Cardiac catheterization is most commonly performed to determine a patient’s cardiac condition and what form of treatment is required, including: medical management, angioplasty (PTCA, stenting or balloon widening of a vessel), or surgery. Coronary biopsies are also conducted via catheterization.
It is a procedure performed to check the activity in the heart and to see if the coronary arteries are properly functioning.
Depending on what test you are waiting for, the time frame varies. A Cholesterol,EKG, and Cardiac Output test result can be given right away. Blood test take about 1 – 3 business days for results. Stress test, Stress Echoes, and Echocardiogram results can be given about 1 – 3 days after the procedures are done. Holter Monitor reading results can be given 7 – 10 business days after completed procedure.
Cardiac Outputs, Stress Test, Stress Echocardiograms, EKG’s, Echocardiograms, Holter Monitors, and Cholesterol tests, among other things.
That would depend on your insurance policy, if it is required. If you have an HMO you do need a referral, but if have PPO or do not have insurance, then you do not need a referral.
Yes, the doctor welcomes all patients, with or without insurance, and alternate payment arrangements are available.